|Record type||Full Name||Simplified Description|
|A Record||Address Record||Assigns an IP address for a domain (i.e. a
|CNAME Record||Canonical Name Record||allows several aliases to be mapped to the same domain. eg
|NS Record||Name Server Reord||Used by TLD servers to direct traffic to the content DNS server which contains the authoritative DNS records|
|SOA||Start of Authority Record||data identifying the adminstrator of a zone, default time-to-live, version, etc.|
|TLD||Top Level Domain||e.g. ".com", ".org", etc.|
|TTL||Time To Live||indicates when the related information should be deemed "expired", causing fetch of more upt-to-date data. Default TTL can be 24hrs or even 48 hrs.|
Routing policies determine how traffic is routed to a bunch of available servers.
Remember that with all of these, end-user side (browser-side), you will generally keep hitting the same yielded ip/endpoint until the configured TTL expires.
You implement routing policies with Route 53 DNS "Record sets". For the most part (from what I gather) you will be implementing your routing polices as A records.
As an aside: since amazon is a domain registrar you can actually buy your domain right in AWS (currently common TLDs go for around $12USD)- or just bring your own. I guess if you buy from them, the NS records wil be setup for you, otherwise you would be going to your domain registrar and adding AWS nameservers.
Anatomy of a record set: